Thursday, February 28, 2019

Kenworth Motors Case Study Essays and Term Papers

Read Kenworth Motors beginning on p. 212 of Cummings & Worley (2009) and answer the four questions at the end of the case.1. How well the OD advisor did prepares for the meeting with Denton? I do non believe that the OS adviser was quite prepared for the meeting. He stated that he was some to talk to a man and go to a unassailable that he knew no involvement much rough. He did stir a little snap of facts to the highest degree(predicate) his title and his problem tenure. But one thing is that he knew that it was Kenworth Motors Seattle truck manufacturing operations.He did not have agenda of what the business was all about and he was not focused about the agenda. Would you have done anything differently? Yes I would. If I knew that I was red ink on an appointment and I did not know anything about the firm or the person that I was going to see. I would have prepared myself a little ready than that. I would have tried to find out more study about Mr. Denton, and I would h ave done a research about Kenworth Motors Seattle truck manufacturing operations.2. In the discussion between the OD advisor and Denton, what was powerful and ineffective about the advisors behavior? One thing about the OD consultant is that when he had the interview with Mr. Denton he had a change to ask Mr. Denton question first about the plant and products. Denton was adequate to talk about 10 or 12 minutes on different topicdaily production rate of 23 trucks, the approach of the truck, the sales order backlog, some equipment updating just finished, his coming to this job from a plant in the Midwest, his spending a lot of quantify lately with the next years budget.This was effective be do OD consultant was able to learn some things about Mr. Denton and the firm that he did not knew. They were able to communicate effectively with one another. Bob and the OD consultant both had a positive attitude. The ineffective about the consultants behavior is that he was trying to find out e verything about Mr. Denton and the firm as much as he can. The OD consultant caught himself going on with more question. He was looking for Mr. Denton to tell him something were wrong about the company, but he really did not have much to translate what was wrong.3. How effective was the contracting process described in the last decompose of the case? The contracting was very effective Bob seemed to be very open with the OD consultant. Bob was able to agree with the OD consultant about staying on a retreat for the weekend, once a month. This would give the department coach-and-fours a change to get acquainted with each other. Also, the OD consultant stated that going on this retreat would not cause them to lose time off from work and it would not cost a lot of money.They still will be working all solar mean solar day on Saturday with appropriate breaks, and conclude by noon on Sunday. What is the setting and clarity of the agreement? The scope and clarity of the agreement is that the OD consultant must make sure that he agreed to have a retreat weekend a month-and-a-half. Also they agreed to use the vocalize a communications workshop when he informed the participants.4. How would you design the forthcoming retreat? I would continue to have a weekend and-a-half day retreat. I would recommend that we developed some kind of strategies to help manager to become more effective.On my agenda, I would include communicating, problem solving, time management, stress management and decision making. I would standardized to make it a sport retreat even though it is work related to. I would not necessitate to work at all of the retreat I would like to go to a hotel where they served breakfast, lunch and dinner. Also at the end of the retreat, I would like to have someone teach us the importance of getting becoming rest and exercise prior to going to work and after that have an exercise workout. This can help relieved some work related stress.

Loneliness and Dreams in Mice of men Essay

John Steinbeck wrote the novel of Mice and meetforce during the great depression. During this time in that location were few jobs which meant people had to migrate in search of jobs. This meant they were constantly pitiful and could not establish lasting friendships or relationships. Steinbeck portrays the l whizsowork forceess and hardship matte by people living through the 1930s American depression. He shows how the ideateings of the events were what helped them survive through this period. In this essay I depart prove the ambitiousnesss and l atomic number 53liness of the characters in the novel and how Steinbeck reveals each characters seclusion and envisages.George and Lennie both association loneliness. Even though they had each other George needed somebody on his wavelength, with his level of maturity because Lennie is resembling a child and does not opine deal an adult, he is ment eachy retarded.One almost gets the feeling that he doesnt want Lennie for compa nionship at all when he is public lecture to Lennie about(predicate) how he would live without him. God a mighty, if I was besides I could live so easy. Page 11As George carries on jawing of his laid back cargon forgo lifestyle he dreams of he progressively gets angrier. It makes the reader wonder why he even rest with Lennie if he feels so overwhelmed with the responsibility of locutioning out for Lennie. George is a brain he sees how bitter other men on the ranch eat up be rise up through their loneliness George realizes that staying with Lennie stops him from being truly lone(a). He also has protection from Lennie because he knows he is safe when he has a big guy like Lennie as his friend. Looking out for Lennie digs him a purpose, a reason, a role in his life he gets the enjoyment of knowing he is needed.George fell silent. He wanted to conference. Page 41This quote is from when George talks to Slim. He is happy to hold up the chance to talk to someone on his leve l of maturity. As Slim is a entire listener and tries to understand the relationship between George and Lennie.Lennie doesnt really experiences loneliness although he necessarily to pet something, to hold something. He al rooms has George to look afterwardwards(prenominal) him sees George as a father figure. George instructs him on how to be grant and what to do in certain situations.Slowly, like a terrier who doesnt want to constitute a ball to its master, Lennie approached, page 9This quote is military issuen from when George wants to take a dead mouse away from Lennie who doesnt want to give it up. It reveals how George has an authority over Lennie.George and Lennies dream is to one day give some agriculture. They wish to live on this land and be their stimulate boss. George no longer wants to comply with somebody elses rules. He wants to have a purpose in working hard on the land because then he will benefit from his hard work. Whereas when working on a ranch he is wor king hard for somebody elses profits.Lennie is only interested in tending to the rabbits. He just wants to be able to pet some animals. His dream fits in with Georges it doesnt matter if he owns the land or not.Curleys wifes pertain is never mentioned she is always referred to as Curleys wife. Steinbeck never uses her name because the other men see her as belonging to Curley, just other possession of his on the ranchCurleys wife is the only womanhood on the ranch, she married Curley recently and she is still quite young. She is lonely because she has no one to confide in. When she wants to talk to the men she uses the excuse she is looking for Curley. any(prenominal) you boys seen Curley? Pg81This quote is from when Lennie, dulcify and Crooks are in Crooks manner and Curleys wife comes in. In this chapter we know she uses the excuse she is looking for Curley as a way to talk to the men on the ranch. We know this because, after the men tell her he hasnt been there she saysThink I dont know where they all went?Even Curley. I know where they all went. Page 81She uses this excuse every time she wants to talk to the men merely she has shown that she knew exactly where he was this time. She then calls them the weak ones the fortune of bindle stiffs that even after that she wishes to talks to them. This is because she is desperate for some political party anyone to talk to. She is seen to be a tart and jail bait by the other men on the ranch, but she still wants to have them for company.Curleys wife also had dream, she still has, and when she was younger she wanted to be an actress. She says how she could have been famous, rich and happy. I coulda made somethin of myself. She utter darkly, Maybe I will yet. Pg 93The fact that she still trusts to fulfil her dream is rather pathetic. Her dream is very un real she will never break free from her sorrowful marriage. She has this dream because it is a form of escapism, she can pretend that she is not lonely an d that one-day she will not have to live the way she very practically dislikes. I tell you I aint used to livin like this. Pg 93She reveals her dreams to Lennie when hes on his own she finds that the men only talk to her when they are on their own. Even when Lennie is on his own he is reluctant to talk to her because of what George has said about her.Crooks is a Negro in a golf club that considers non-whites as sub-human. He also is partially halting which does not help when he is living in a society that value people by their ability to provide a service. Because of his endure he does not sleep in the same room as the other workers, he lives in the room where he works in and a manure pile under the window.Because of this Crooks spends most of his time on his own leading to a great feeling of loneliness. His only companions are his arrests and as he has seen people come and go he has acquired more possessions than the others have.His loneliness is revealed when he is talking to Lennie. Lennie is talking to Crooks in his room, telling him about the land they will one day own. A guy needs somebody-to be near him. Pg 77Crooks reads books but because of his colour he has no friend not even somebody on his wavelength. He is on his own every night whereas all the other men grapple their room in the bunkhouse.Crooks is so overcome with his loneliness that he cannot hope or dream anymore. He doesnt take any mention of Lennies dream because he has heard it all before.I seen hundreds of men come by on the roadAn every damn one of ems got a little piece of land in his head.An never a god-damn one of em ever gets it. Pg 78Although after he hears how this dream could become a reality Crooks is influenced and wants to join in. He later retracts his statement because of the way Curleys wife treats him. Well you economize your place, then, Nigger. I could get you strung up on a corner so easy it aint even funny. Pg 85Shes racist and through her body language she sh ows that she has the authority over him. This is why he no longer wanted to join in with the political platform of owning land.Candy is lonely because he has nobody he only had one companion, which was his dog that he had since the dog was a puppy. Candy was very broken in when his dog had to be killed. His loneliness is revealed when Carlson proposes that the dog should be shot. Whynt you shoot him, candy?The old man squirmed uncomfortably. Pg 47The apprehension of Candys only companion being shot fills him with dread. The musical theme is uncomfortable. He tries many times to reason with Carlson and find a way that he can nonplus off the death of his dog.Candy said hopefully, you aint got a gun. Pg 50The only reason he lets his dog die is because he cannot argue with Carlson. Also Slim concord with Carlson and Slim word is the law in this play, the voice of reason.Candy is so desperate for companionship that he keeps a blind dog that is in pain from dying in a way this is an act of selfishness.Candy listens attentively while George and Lennie are talking about their dream. He offers to bribe the land they need to fulfil their dream.Sspose I went in with you guys.Thas three hundred an fifty bucks Id put in Pg 62Candy is very old, because of the great depression there is no job security and because of this he cyphers he will be looted soon.At this point the dream seems more real to them than it has ever been before. ahead it was just a fantasy, some thing to find comfort in, but he could never actually let himself believe it. They all sit still, all bemused by the beauty of the thing, Pg 64I think now their dream is more realistic but not realistic enough because George says if Lennie and he dont spend anything they would have $450 but they are bound to spend something especially when George is interested in waiver to the cat house. Also the asking price is $600 it will take a lot longer for them to raise that amount of money.The great depression in America had its effect on many of the characters money was hard to come by.Loneliness is a major theme in the novel Of Mice and Men because many of the characters suffer from this more than anything else. Loneliness kills Curleys wife, embitters Crooks and candy although Lennie and George put it off through the fact that they have each other for companionship.Guys like us, that work on the ranches, are the loneliest guys in the world. Lennie broke in. just not us Because because I got you to look after me, and you got me to look after you, and thats why Pg 14Steinbeck doesnt offer any answers to the characters problem of loneliness. Showing the reader a graphic and move portrayal of how loneliness affects people without providing an antidote or giving a happy ending makes the novel really sad.Lennie and Georges dream brought vigor but pain and grief instead of promised joy and happiness, which ties into the tittle of the book which was taken from a poem titled to a mouse by a Sc ottish poet called Robert Burns.This poem was about how a mouse, which had planned for the spend by making a nest, had its nest ruined by a tractor.George and Lennie planned carefully how they were going to achieve their dream of being free and independent but forces beyond their control shattered their dream. Steinbeck never suggests that dreams should not be had, Lennie and Georges dream was so powerful that Candy was wasted in and for a short time so was the cynical Crooks. This dream was what comforted Lennie and helped George survive. The dreams the characters had had to be had they were what was needed to hold on to, to survive and to work for.This period of time made people bitter because they were lonely, the only mortal they had to look out for was themselves, kindness had no place on the ranch. They all cried out for love and care but only Lennie openly explicit his need for it through his constant talk of rabbits. Characters like Crooks had become cynical, he had lost hope and he couldnt dream. At first when Lennie talked of his dream Crooks thought it was another pathetic dream he was beyond imagining how everything could be. Curleys wifes dream was rather pathetic and quite unrealistic but it was a form of escapism for her. So she fantasised about her dream coming true but it was her way of coping when she was in an uncheerful marriage that she had no way out of. It is sad to think that the loneliness that she was trying to get away from killed her in the end.

Wednesday, February 27, 2019

Vague and Ambiguous

virtuoso main task of critical thinking is to strike these linguistic pits. Let us start with the first major pitf completely obscurity. Obscurity here refers to unreadable meanspiriteding. A concept or a linguistic expression ro white plague be undecipherable for various thinks. One reason is that it might beambiguous, i. e. having more than one means. The other reason is that it might be slow. A margeinal is said to be vague if thither atomic number 18 borderline cases where it is inde borderinate as to whether it applies or non.Finally, a landmark might also have an unclear meaning in that its meaning is half(prenominal). Let us look at these cases one by one. M08. 1 Ambiguity There atomic number 18 actually different kinds of ambiguity Lexical ambiguity This is a single word or landmark having more than one meaning in the language. For runple, the word thick(p) bathroom mean profoundity (What you have said is very deep. ), or it tin can be used to describe ph ysical depth (This hole is very deep). Similarly for words corresponding young (inexperienced or young of age), till (river bank or financial institution), etc. Referential ambiguity It is not clear which thing or group is being referred to.This often arises when the stage setting does not make it clear what a pronoun or quantifier is referring to. affiliate hit atomic number 31 and then she started bleeding. Who is hurt? ally or Georgia? Everybody is coming to the party. Certainly everybody does not refer to every human being in the whole world. simply then which group of tribe are we talking about? Of instruction in normal situations the speaker unremarkably has some specific group of bulk in mind. numerous people like to make very general statements, such(prenominal) as All politicians are corrupt. Literally, this statement implies that in that location is no politician who is not corrupted.But of course we can think of many counterexamples to such a claim. So the person who makes the statement might say I dont really mean each and every politician. But then who exactly are the people referred to? Syntactic ambiguity This means having more than one meaning because there is more than one way to interpret the grammatical structure. This can demote flat when it is clear what the meanings of the individual words are. We shall be discussing violence on TV. It might mean the discussion go away be conducted during a boob tube programme, or it might meanviolence on TVis the head to be discussed.When dealing with ambiguous language the thing to do is of course to clarify the meaning of the expression, for example by listing out all the different possible interpretations. This process of removing ambiguity is call disambiguation. M08. 2 Vagueness An term isvagueif it has an imprecise boundary. This means that there are cases where it is indeterminate whether the term applies or not. For example, a small exclusively closed elan with no wind ows or doors and no light inside is certain depressed. If we switch on a 100W lightbulbs inside it will become bright.But we turn on the subdued for the light and dim the light slowly until it goes out, then the room will gradually change from a bright room to a semidark one. But there is no precise point at which the room suddenly ceases to be bright. Similarly, there is no precise point at which the room suddenly becomes dark. The terms dark and bright do not have clear boundaries of applications in this situation, and we say that these terms are vague. The term a marvellous person is also vague in that there are certain cases where it is hard to say whether a person is tall or not, but this indecision is not due to lack of intimacy about that persons height.You might know exactly how tall that person is, but still you dont know whether he is tall or not. This is because the meaning of the term is not precise enough. Other examples of vague terms heavy, dark, mountain, cleve r, cheap. Notice thatwe should make a property between vagueness and ambiguity. A word can be vague nonetheless though it is not ambiguous, and an ambiguous term having more than one meaning would not be said to be vague if the different meanings it has are very precise. Vague terms can be effective in everyday lifebecause often we do not have to be too precise.How precise we should be depends of course on the context. A figure of (bad) argument about vagueness which we often encounter There is really no difference between X and Y because it is often instead unclear whether something is X or Y. Example There is really no such thing as objective truth or falsity. Whether something is true or false is often hard to say. This is a bad argument because even though a distinction might have borderline cases, it does not follow that the distinction is not real. For example, it might sometimes be unclear whether a room is dark or bright.But (a) there is still a real distinction bet ween dark and bright rooms, and (b) there can be clear cases where we have one but not the other. Vagueness should be avoided when we want to speak precisely, as vagueness decreases the informational content of a claim. For example, compare these sentences He is quite old, actually exactly eighty years old. He is quite old, actually about eighty years old. He is quite old. Many students often like to ask questions such as Is there issue to be a lot of homework for this course? Is the final exam going to be difficult? But of course words like difficult and a lot are vague. Vague terms can make a claim vague and impossible to confirm or disprove. Horoscope predictions for example Be prepared for a change of direction this hebdomad as something crops up. SCMP Sunday Post Magazine. This piece of news is going to concern the market somewhat. But of course one might try to use vagueness to ones advantage in order to be non-committal or imprecise. As a minister I agree that to some extent I am responsible. The government will deal with this problem in an appropriate manner when the right time comes. M08. Incomplete Meaning A term has anincomplete meaningif the property or relation it expresses depends on some provided parameter to be specified by the context, either explicitly or implicitly. This includes terms such as useful, authoritative, correspondent and punter. Practically all objects are useful and important only in some respects but not others. For example, is love more important than money? Well, it depends. If you are starving to death, then money is more important. But if you are trying to determine which of the two contributes more to a talented and fulfilling life, then the answer might be different.So just saying that something is useful or important is empty unless it is made clear in what way it is so. This is also necessary if we want to evaluate whether what is said is true or not. The education director shall visit Scotland to stu dy their educational system because it is alike to the one in Hong Kong. Will this years final exam be similar to the one last year? It is better to be beautiful than to be good. But . . . it is better to be good than to be ugly. Oscar Wilde (1854 1900) Art neer improves, but . . . the material of art is never quite the same. T. S. Eliot (1888 1965)

The british invasion: musical movement of 1960s

The focal point of the study is to analyze and respect the British Invasion or the euphonyal effect of the mid-1960s composed of British rock-and-roll (beat) groups whose popularity spread rapidly throughout England and the coupled States. For the subprogram it is important to understand the socio political equilibrium of the clock. This is because the main factors in this movement are predominantly tether fold. The first one is changing neighborly pattern after the Great fight. The second important factor is the grimace of cultural contacts and third aspect is the changing face of market and comparisonsimony in UK and US.It could be pertained in the initial stages that it was de extension time. Imperialism had taken its tolls on the world, which was grilling on the last fires of the Second World fight. The losses were withal heavy, and the shocks, almost unbearable. People just lived through a test of the finish organized cruelty and purposeful ruthlessness could re ach. As far as the future was concerned, the initial tremors of what would lead to a pottyive cross across the globe were cosmos felt the crack that broke it up into three distinctly different worlds, the first, the second and the third.In this context it would be relevant to mention that the gen whiletion was non finding their existence worth while or in another(prenominal) words they wanted more(prenominal) out of their life. This particular(a) bit was searched everywhere and at every aspects of life and medicinal drug was no different. The Beat movement came to this need of the hour with quite a some impertinent faces budding with melodious talents and a whole new genus of unison c each(prenominal)ed the rock n roll. (Prawer, 221-5)It was regen termtion time. Ideological conflicts and military interests were shaking refinement right up to its bringations. The doubts, dilemmas and confusions were gradually, quite slowly indeed, giving way to a new and unique cultura l revolution. It was happening all across the United Kingdom and the United States. People suddenly seemed to realize that there was liberal of political warfare to disgrace domain. The prevailing standards suddenly seemed to be meaningless, and the second youths wanted something different to happen.United Kingdom and its Beat Movement was no expulsion to this movement. As a matter of fact, it was one of the cores of it. The presence of a long number of African-Americans in the city was pushing it ahead to initiate the complaisant Rights Movement. Something that had laid its roots in the human mind over a few millennia, apartheid that is, was gradually being uprooted by the new wave of what started being called the rock n roll movement. The existing practice of medicineal trends, blues and country, did not suffice in expressing the confesss and grievances of the new generation, which started looking at itself as a victim of political conspiracies. (Powell, 49-53)It could be stated that the focal point of this paper is realizing that what occurred in United Kingdom during the era of 1960s that was instrumental in giving the birth of rock n roll. This was deeply influenced by the presence of the saucily migrated African American universe in United Kingdom and influenced the musical development by a huge margin with musical innings that corporal jazz meshing with country music.But the canonic background of this movement started much(prenominal) preceding and it would be relevant to mention that the black community contributed hugely to this movement. African American history and the context in this case is the smashing migration during the mid 1900s. While looking into the matter it can primary be mentioned that migration is a subject that is studied on all levels when leading with humanity and its idiosyncrasies. In order to understand migration we must understand the various components touch in migration, including internal migration, external migration, immigration and both refugees and Internally Displaced Persons. During the 20th century, especially in the middle decades, it was found that the population of Southern UK with judicial admission of African American origin has doubled inside a embroil of 10 years after the Second World War.The population escalated to a high note and this time the immigrants were there in the region to shake off their hands on the industrial boom. This was clearly not at par with any single exertion like Manchester but the cumulative state total of the gross output became quite high and the settlements showed the white population of the area that there was more to music than usual traditional themes.These population use to gather around at the evening and presented their compositions to themselves. It was a well-off get down but wad like McCartney or Lennon soon found out that these rural touch of music can be slim and urbanized to develop into a new form of musical genera that was in the end to be cognise as Rock n roll and as these people were from smaller towns and this part was to harvest most of the credit of this new form of music. (Tyerman, 233-37)The life styles of the early 1960s through the later 1960s have emerged as fallout of the booming economy that is represented by the generation of baby boomers. The weighed downship during the days of the Second World War gave birth to the newest possible philosophies that state it is obvious to follow the trend of unfastened market economy with all its perception of high yielding materialism. This hard cored materialism and pro life oriented military capability was previously know in the western world but now it came into a maximized form which sociologist refer as a pro active action once against the mass destruction and insecurity of the last great war. The latest philosophy was to catch as much as possible that life has to offer. Every well-disposed aspect changed with it and along with it chan ged the world around them.Plays and writer were no different. colors became more vibrant and approach became more outrageous to keep up with the friendship. Joe Ortons plays were a product of this period. UK and US was ready for this change and it only undeniable a spark to ignite its whole new musical genus. This was provided by the endowments of talented musicians like Roy Orbison, Johnny Cash and Carl Perkins, John Lennon and Elvis Presley. These people were to become the pride of the youth and the era soon came to be known as the cradle of Rock n roll. (Manning, 279)The funny side of this approach was however different from the basic perception of the life styles of the early 1960s through the later 1960 were a confluence of conflicting philosophies. As it was mentioned earlier that the idea of materialism was at its had hitting best but rather the simplicities of eastern philosophies, specifically Indian philosophies, were highly acclaimed though it was concentrated within a certain group of people. As a result, the poets and the writers, as to the lowest degree a section of them, who took their inspirations from life and society it self, inclined themselves towards the approach of simplistic formations of art forms.It is a well known fact and it has been shown time and again by many literary historians and researchers that the main targeted audience were the baby boomers who had all the opportunities to take all the advantages of almost any and every marketing gimmicks. UK and its music were not far behind in this era. The musicians of this time needed something more vibrant and colorful and Rock n Roll came out as the product of the time. (Dollard, 116-7)It should be remembered that this was the era of the beginning of the cold wars too and captivation of the authorities towards the space age race and nuclear future was overwhelming. So, it is obvious that the common demography of the country started mimicking the perception of the authorities taki ng the thought of space age right to their likings. As a result the musical designers could not be left far behind. They associated their music with the latest gizmos and presented the bluster of Rock n Roll as new age revolution.The paradox was that the new generation was unable to recognize themselves with the usual blues and other traditional forms. They wanted something exclusively that is easily identifiable to them. Rock n Roll Music provided that element which included the latest approach to music with more flair and flamboyance. This music possessed more swings and action and this was what the generation of 1960s wanted. The Beat movement provided this exact genus of music. (Knott, 188-9)The innovative and diversified methodology utilized between these two decades reflects a change in societys considerations. The choice to change furniture styles reflects a great deal on the emotional status of the era and the need to recover from a series of devastating events. Those de vastating events included World War II and a very emotional roller coaster in the depression era which wrought havoc in many ship canal on the methods of deed and the economic infrastructure of the United States and UK. The devastation involved during World War II provided impetus for the designers from various European countries to flee to the United States and UK for asylum and freedom of expression. This is where the innovation for the new modern style of music was managed.The 1950s period was indeed a lively decade for arts and engineering science where many forces emerged influencing changes in musical design. The push of space travel, the defense industry and consumer booms provided impetus toward increased influences of fashion in lifestyle design. Cheap heretofore swagger articles made to be thrown away afterwards became fashionable for household interiors. Youths of the era became a strong influence on this era of design by attacking the principles of tradition in many ways including interior design. Designers were intrigued and influenced by fantasy films, space travel and its mystique and more. Later this attitude was becoming more relevant with pop art culture, the Beatles, Woodstock, Peace, Love, Psycadelia and the Youth Force. (Kumar, 334)In inference it can well be stated that it is true that the movement of music in the form of Rock n roll developed and reached at a great height but at the same time it is also a fact that it died out soon in its original form. However, the music of this era left a long standing legacy for generations to come in different forms and designs of music along with different issues to protest along with cultural homogeneous forms and changing socio economic and philosophical context, the basic causes of the development of this musical movement.Works SitedDollard, John Zenith and Zero Points of History (New Haven and capital of the United Kingdom Yale University Press. 2004) pp 116-7Knott, P Development of Anal ysis of US & UK Economy (Dhaka Dasgupta & Chatterjee 2005) pp 188-9Kumar, H umpire of Winners Win Some, Lose None (Auckland HBT & Brooks Ltd. 2005) pp 334Manning, C S Principals and Practices of Hollywood Industry (Christchurch National Book Trust. 2004) pp 279Powell, M Anatomy of Modern tillage Independence of Economy (Wellington ABP Ltd 2001) pp 49-53Prawer, H A The Kingdom of RocknRoll (Dunedin Allied Publishers 2004) pp 221-5Tyerman, J Invention of the Musical Crusades (Dunedin Allied Publications 2001) pp 233-37

Tuesday, February 26, 2019

Gender Communication Differences in Traditional Marriage

A sexual activity image of ones self is first presented to a child by his/her p atomic number 18nts. It is through the behaviors learned, the characteristics that are reinforced and the inappropriate gender traits that are punished that we, as humans, are able to grasp our crowingr role in society. These early concepts of gender identity, behavior and roles also influence how we communicate interpersonally. Two people of oppo sendness gender joined in marriage have dickens actually different styles of intercourse to the extent that this problem is sometimes insurmountable. Lack of top out confabulation between partners in a traditional marriage is oftentimes cited as the cause for divorce.Not so enormous ago, traditional gender roles, combined with an aversion for the stigma of divorce, were a huge accompanimentor in the length of a couples relationship. Men and women stuck it out for the long run, even when experiencing problems, and a breakdown in communication. Long before technology took over society and created more avenues for communicating with each, men were used to exhibit support by doing things for the family and women showed their affection through talking (Torrpa, 2002).Women expect their matrimonial relationship to be based on mutual dependence and cooperation musical composition men expect it to be based on independence and disputation (Torppa, 2002). Clearly, these two different sets of expectations will have an effect on how the two partners communicate and ultimately, on the strength of the union.The current generation of young adults is wait longer their parents to induct an acceptable marriage match as oppose to the trend of earlier years when marriage the year after in high spirits indoctrinate was expected. The tradition of marriage is still intact, but the demographics are changing. The fact that couples are waiting to tie the knot should also affect their superpower to communicate with each other about important i ssues due to old partners presumably having a better idea of what they want in carriage and a better grasp on how to communicate it.According to Ohashi (1993) marriage is a system established on the assumption of a division of labor based on gender-role stereotypes (from Katsurada, Sugihara, 2002). Women traditionally tend to want to make everyone happy while men make decisions based largely on their own personal needs (Torrpa, 2002) one aspect of marriage that is unvaried for the most part yet responsible for many breaks in communication between the partners.Differences in typical gender roles also affect communication between husband and wife. Typically, women are characterized as being the more bigmouthed of the sexes as well as being comfort providers and more unassailable in showing their emotions. Women are also better at knowledge between the lines regarding interpersonal issues (Torrpa, 2002). Men, on the other hand, are known for their unequivocal lack of communica tion and in powerfulness to provide emotional support. Their ability to get a line between the lines regarding status is more pronounced than in women.With traditional roles in marriage declining and technology taking over, communication is at once two more effective and less available (Morris, 2001) we have more slipway of communicating (e.g. text messaging, Email, etc.) but we have less time to do so with multiple careers. Both male and female partners tend to instruct the other as being more controlling of the relationship (Torppa, 2002) and without the ability to communicate effectively, this assumption can be quite damaging to the marriage.This report card will explore the varying roles of a man and woman in a traditional marriage relationship, how these roles influence their ability to effectively communicate, and the level of satisfaction each partner feels based on their idea of whether or not they are communicating effectively with each other regarding large issues. A ccording to Torrpa (2002) understanding differences is the key to working them out.ReferencesKatsurada, Emiko & Sugihara, Yoko ( kinfolk, 2002). Gender-role identity, attitudes toward marriage and gender-segregated school backgrounds. Sex Roles A Journal of Research. Retrieved September 5, 2007, from the Find Articles Web site http//findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2294/is_2002_Sept/ai_96736800/pg_2. Martinez, J.M., Chandra, A., Abma, J.C., Jones, J. & Mosher, W.D. (2006). Fertility, conception and fatherhood Data on men and women from troll 6 (2002) of the National Survey of Family Growth. National Center for Health Statistics. Retrieved September 5, 2007 from the CDC Web site http//www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/series/sr_23/sr23_026.pdf Morris, Grantley (2001). Improving Communication in Marriage. Retrieved September 5, 2007 from the Web site http//net-burst.net/love/talk.htm. Torppa, C. B. (2002). Gender Issues Communication Differences in Interpersonal Relationships. The Ohio State Univ ersity Extension Program. Retrieved online September 5, 2007 from the OSU Web site http//ohioline.osu.edu/flm02/FS04.html. new wave den Troost, Ann (August, 2005). Marriage in Motion. Sociology Today, Volume 10. Leuven University Press.

Society’s Perception of Affirmative Action

I both agree, and disagree with what the author is saying in this article. He starts by saying that our chances of succeeding are influenced by the generation of our family that came before us, and by our net subject of friends and acquaintances. He applies the term social capital, to this. He then goes on to say that the government collects to take responsibility for ensuring that everyone has an equal luck get a job, be accepted into a university, or go up in their company.The next five paragraphs are spent disceptation against color-blind absolutism, that is, the idea that we should ignore race altogether. To this point in the article, I could non agree more. I conceptualize most rational persuasion people learn from their parents, older siblings and even their extended families. They see the mistakes that their families do and want to do better. In my family for instance, I am the youngest of six children. My parents grew up in farming communities and had slight or no educ ation. I was the root in the family to go straight through high school and graduate. wholly the four youngest of six children veritable a high school diploma or equivalent, and only myself and one of my brothers has had any education beyond that. I see this as a natural evolution that takes several generations. close to of my older siblings did not see the value of an education, or of planning your rising and setting goals. While I saw the mistakes they made, it took me several years to discover that my success was dependent on setting goals, and the actions I took to strain them. I also agree with the author assertion that society cannot be completely colorblind.We do not need to pretend that we are not different, we need to accept and embrace apiece others differences. We need to recognize and respect the each others cultures. Color and race will forever be used, just as height and weight are used to describe people. There is postal code wrong with acknowledging our diffe rences, as long as we do not dig those differences as negatives. I have to disagree with the remainder of the article. He has taken offense, apparently, to the perception that blacks need to be given preferential treatment to achieve a degree of success.I believe that he is arguing that positive action is demeaning to blacks, but what he should be arguing against is not affirmative action, but white societys perception of affirmative action. Used as it was intended, affirmative action does not give minorities preferential treatment, it gives them an opportunity to make out with other applicants of equal qualifications. Human nature being what it is, opportunities do not always present themselves solely because of a persons skills, qualifications, or persistence.I of late read that a high percentage of positions are filled not through newspaper ads, or recruiting agencies, but through word of mouth. The stovepipe place for employers to look for new employees is often from their current employees. If this is true, then unless your work place is already racially diverse, most of your new hires are credibly to come from similar racial or ethnic background as the majority of your workforce. Breaking this cycle takes a conscious effort. I believe this is the case in organized labor organizations.Perhaps there is no conscious effort to keep blacks or minorities out, but a swear to get ones family and friends in, so that they too may enjoy the benefits of a healthy job. I believe I benefited from affirmative action when I fall in the union apprenticeship program. Had it not been for the pressure applied on unions to diversify, there is little doubt in my mind that someones son or nephew would have received that position. And that person would most likely have been a white male. The role of affirmative action is to level the playing field, not to tilt it in the direction of minorities.If it is improperly used, we essential not blame the program we must blam e the people that are administering it. Universities should not lower standards, but support academically qualified minorities to apply and support programs that help increase the pool of qualified applicants. While it is true that an individuals success depends largely on that individuals have drive and self determination, history has taught us that things are not firing to get better without some governmental intervention.

Monday, February 25, 2019

Crito Analysis Essay

Rhetorical Question But my dear Crito, wherefore should we pay so much attention to what most people speak out? The reasonable people, who have more claim to be considered, will imagine that the facts are exactly as they are (906).Personification Consider consequently, Socrates, the righteousnesss would probably continue, whether it is also true for us to say that what you are trying to do to us is not right (913).Platos Crito is sensation of the mankindy tremendously influential pieces of literature produced in ancient Greece. It is a thought-provoking, philosophical interchange regarding the role of the individual within society, and how to treat injustice. As part of a series of imaginary dialogues between Socrates and other characters, Crito deals with the conflict Socrates is presented with, as he awaits execution. Crito, one of Socrates close friends, urges Socrates to escape prison while he quiet down can. Crito offers several arguments to justify his escape, inclu ding the shame he would endure from the public for allow his friend die, and the poor example it would set for the children of Athens. However, Socrates carefully analyzes each of Critos arguments for escaping, and proves them invalid through logic and deductive reasoning. The passage, But my dear Crito, why should we pay so much attention to what most people infer? The reasonable people, who have more claim to be considered, will believe that the facts are exactly as they are (906), demonstrates the method that Socrates uses to persuade. Socrates asks a rhetorical question to expose the silliness of the Critos worries. It represents the wisdom and morals of Socrates. Critos strongest argument is that Socrates would be promoting injustice by accepting his unfair sentence. However, Socrates disproves this maculation as well, by reasoning that he would be harming the Law by escaping death. Socrates, who has tried to depart his life as justly and peacefully as possible, would be br eaking every moral he ever lived by if he chose to turn against the law. He regards the Law higher than his own life. He sees the Law as a father to him it has raised him, educated him, and allowed him to live a comfortable life. No matter how much he disagrees with its ways, he cannot bring himself to disobey it.Throughout Socrates discussions, he often has conversations with himself and the Law. Plato personifies the Law by giving it human-like qualities and speech it is suggested that the Law can be hurt, and angry. He does this to distinguish it as a character that has feelings. For example, you will leave this place, when you do, as the victim of a wrong done not by us, the Laws, tho by your fellow men. But if you leave in that dishonorable way, reverting wrong from wrong, and evil for evil, breaking your concords with us, and injuring those whom you least ought to injure yourself, your country, and us ,- then you will face our anger (916), demonstrates the authority of the Law. Socrates suggests it is better to die a victim who has lived justly and killed unjustly, than to return the injustice and hurt the Laws. He states, it is neer right to do a wrong or return a wrong or defend ones self against detriment by retaliation (911), which exemplifies the belief that injustice cannot be treated with injustice. Socrates mentions an agreement being broken in this passage this alludes to the belief that there is a social contract between the individual and government. Socrates reasons that when a citizen lives in Athens, he is indirectly supporting the laws and abiding them. The individual has a moral engagement to the government. While it is beneficial to challenge the government under some circumstances, one threatens the foundation of a stable society by breaking its laws. Socrates, who has lived 70 years of Athenian life, is content by living in agreement with this contract. He feels a state simply cannot exist if laws have no power. He firmly believ es in the importance of strict laws, as he calls them the most precious achievement of human history. Besides, he reasons that a man of his age, with little life left to live, would lose his reputation by clinging so greedily to life, at the price of violating the most stringent laws (915). For all these reasons, Crito cadaver an influential piece that poses big questions and promotes critical thinking.

Features of bluetooth technology Essay

The logo for Bluetooth is establish on Runes surrounding the legend of Harald Bluetooth. Bluetooth the technology is based on communications central to mans own personal space. Fundamentally Bluetooth operates at bottom the Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) band at 2. 4 gigacycle per second. It is a short- ordain wireless communication standard defined as cable heir for a Personal Area Network (PAN) (see Bluetooth. Grolier Encyclopedia of Knowledge, pp. 87-94). Figure 1 is the Bluetooth Logo. A cable replacement standard has been defined because cables limit mobility of the consumer they ar cumbersome to carry around, are easily lost or broken. a good deal connectors are prone to difficult to diagnose failures or are proprietary. To overthrow these limitations Bluetooth is casted to be light and portable. It can be embedded to murder the riggers of physical knocks and shocks. It includes standards and protocols to make it mobile, robust, reliable and not limited to one producer (see Bluetooth. Grolier Encyclopedia of Knowledge, pp. 87-94). The operating band also fits the goals of Bluetooth, imposing requirements as a cable replacement. The cost needs to be comparable with cable. Reductions can be achieved by operating in the licence free 2.4 GHz ISM band, keeping backward compatibility wherever possible lowers the cost of possession by avoiding upgrades and having a relaxed intercommunicate specification enables single chip interconnected circuit solutions. It also needs to be as reliable and bouncy as cable and cope with errors and degradation caused by interference. For mobile devices it must(prenominal) be compact, lightweight, low power and easy to use (see Bluetooth. Grolier Encyclopedia of Knowledge, pp. 87-94). A. 1 Frequency Hopping We have addressed the reasons for the Bluetooth without delving into the nuts and bolts of the technology to discover how it operates.For the absolute majority of countries the ISM band used by Bluetooth is gettable from 2. 40-2. 4835 GHz, although some countries chat restrictions. In this band Bluetooth uses Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) techniques in order to meliorate its immunity from interference (see J. labour and C. F. Sturman, Bluetooth conjoin Without Cables, Prentice Hall). In unexclusive countries the radios hop in pseudo random chronological successions around all available channels, this equates to 79 RF channels with a channel spacing of 1 MHz.Starting at a base frequency of 2402 MHz thus the frequency of the channels, f, can be expressed as f =2402 + n MHz where, n, is the channel number with an integer value in the range of 0 to 78. In restricted countries a limited frequency hopping schemes with skilful 23 channels is used and is catered for in the Bluetooth specification. Both hopping schemes have a 1 MHz channel spacing making it possible to design a simple radio interface whereby the baseband only has to specify a channel number and the radio multiplies this up to the appropriate frequency starting prison term (see J.Bray and C. F. Sturman, Bluetooth Connect Without Cables, Prentice Hall).In this FHSS scheme there are 1600 record hop per second, which is a hop every 625 s. Part of this hop timing is interpreted up by the guard time of 220 s allowing the synthesizer time to settle. The frequency hopping implements time division multiplexing as shown in Figure 2. The priming of the scheme has the Master device transmitting in the first 625 us slot, k, and here the Slave receives. In the next slot k = 1 the Slave is permitted to transmit and the master listens (see J.Bray and C. F. Sturman, Bluetooth Connect Without Cables, Prentice Hall).Figure 2 Frequency Hopping, master and slave interact on corresponding slots The radio must be able to retune and stabilise on a sunrise(prenominal) frequency within tight time constraints. This is pushed further when establishing a link the hop rate can be shortened to every 312. 5 u s. As the radios are constantly hopping to different radio channels, this ensures that packets affected by interference on one channel can be retransmitted on a different frequency channel.To further enhance resilience both(prenominal) ARQ (Automatic Repeat reQuest) and FEC (Forward Error Correction) form part of the specification (see J. Bray and C. F. Sturman, Bluetooth Connect Without Cables, Prentice Hall). One drawback with the normal hop sequence is the time interpreted for production testing. Bluetooth ensures adequate frequency coverage with a test sequence allowing the radios to be tested at a faster rate (see J. Bray and C. F. Sturman, Bluetooth Connect Without Cables, Prentice Hall).

Sunday, February 24, 2019

F and B Manager

whole 6 intellectual nourishment and whoop it ups dish Unit code L/601/0463 QCF take 3 BTEC matter Credit value 10 point armment hours 60 Aim and purpose The aim of this social social unit is to modify learners to gain understanding of the splendor of the meal regard in fodder and plight advantage trading mental processs and skills to prep be, submit and brush up provision of aliment and toast serve. Unit introduction This unit introduces learners to basic concepts of nourishment pro give-up the ghost and to the skills, friendship and responsibilities demand in intellectual nourishment attend throughout the sector.The knowledge and skills acquired in this unit leave prep atomic number 18 learners for a supervisory lineament in sustenance process handicraftes. This unit all overwhelms only non-alcoholic boozes. Alcoholic insobrietys be covered in Unit 7 Alcoholic swallow helper. Learners ordain explore the factors involved in the meal stu pefy and will sport the opportunity to relate issues concerning value, quality, skill trains, satisf follow out, renovation and environment to guest expectations in a multifariousness of operations. Learners will involve to fig out the preparation and layout of a nutriment expediency operation, taking into account various factors such as equipment, staff rganisation and instigateicular client take. Learners will need to exhibit a professional approach and operable client service and nutrition service skills. Throughout the unit learners will stand the opportunity to fracture the skills reserve to a range of different parentagees, such as eating places, fast aliment for thought businesses, pub nutrition courts and coffee bars. It is important for learners to appreciate factors essential to node satisfaction and the result of these call for not being fully met. Learners will need to understand and apply paygrade techniques to solid viands service operations . education outcomesOn completion of this unit a learner should 1 Understand the importance of the meal experience in nourishment and wassail service operations 2 Be able to organise the preparation and layout of a victuals and drink service operation 3 Be able to provide viands and drink service and client service in a professional, upright and hygienic manner 4 Be able to freshen food and drink service provision. Edexcel BTEC Level 3 Nationals stipulation in Hospitality bit 1 February 2010 Edexcel confine 2010 1 Unit circumscribe 1 Understand the importance of the meal experience in food and drink service operationsMeal experience value for money quality of growth and service environment ambience suitability for purpose take aim of customer service timing Situations eat for pleasure or necessity eg business lunch, special occasion, meal with friends, wedding celebration, conference, function, during a shopping trip, in hospital, when traveling 2 Be able to organis e the preparation and layout of a food and drink service operation Operation types eg restaurant, pub, banquet, fast food, food court, coffee bar, transport providers (rail, air, sea)Preparation and layout health and safety considerations checking cleanliness of environment checking furnishings and equipment obtaining and preparing equipment determining layout of environment, the reception, bar area, tables and eating area menu requirements staff organisation briefing customer necessitate eg wheelchair access, children contingency planning 3 Be able to provide food and drink service and customer service in a professional, safe and hygienic mannerRequirements product knowledge adept skills trance procedures for operation eg have customer, taking order, confirming choice, serving food and beverages using provide method, ensuring honorarium Food service methods eg silver service, plate service, buffet, self-service, serveed service, room service, tax return service suitability of method for different operations constraints eg cost- authority, customer demand, timescale, staff skills, environment, layout confound service non-alcoholic eg soft drinks, bottled waters, teas, coffees service procedures and techniques cleaning and maintaining equipment eg uice dispensers, coffee machines trends eg interior designer waters, healthy drinking options Customer service situations communication method (face-to-face, on the telephone, in writing, by email) purpose eg providing instruction, giving advice, keeping records, providing assistance, dealing with problems, discourse complaints, dealing with food allergies Professional approach berth personal sort dress hygiene attentiveness body language attention to position relationships with colleagues communication skills eg listening, speaking, relaying messages and orders accurately and promptly team practise codes of practice Be able to check food and drink service provision Techniques collecting education sou rces of in framingation eg customers, colleagues feedback methods (qualitative, quantitative) eg questionnaires, comments books, staff meetings making reasoned judgements base on available information Criteria suitability of food and drink service provided environment, preparation and layout service provided (quality, speed) train of customer satisfaction value for money 2 Edexcel BTEC Level 3 Nationals detailation in Hospitality routine 1 February 2010 Edexcel Limited 2010 sound judgement and grading criteriaIn order to oral sex this unit, the record that the learner bows for legal opinion need to demonstrate that they underside meet all the acquisition outcomes for the unit. The assessment criteria for a fall in place describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit. Assessment and grading criteria To achieve a pass grade the evidence must(prenominal) show that the learner is able to To achieve a moral excellence grade the evidence must show that, i n addition to the pass criteria, the learner is able to P1 explain the importance of the M1 meal experience in food and drink service situations IE 4 P2 organise the preparation and ayout of a food and drink service operation SM 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 P3 demonstrate competent skills M2 show license and in providing food and drink confidence in providing food service with appropriate tutor and drink service support P4 show a professional attitude at all times with relevant personal, social, technological and customer service skills SM 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 P5 review food and drink service M3 guess a food and drink provision. service operation and make IE 6 recommendations for advance using agreed criteria and relevant data. To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that, n addition to the pass and chastity criteria, the learner is able to analyse the suitability of different methods of service, operational procedures and levels of customer service in food service operations D1 show naughty levels of confidence, product knowledge and skills when providing food and drink service D2 assess a food and drink service operation, making justified recommendations for improvement, and fuck off an action plan for implementation. PLTS This summary references where applicable, in the square brackets, the elements of the personal, learning and thinking skills applicable in the pass criteria.It identifies opportunities for learners to demonstrate sound application of the referenced elements of the skills. IE independent enquirers RL reflective learners SM self-managers CT creative thinkers Key TW team workers EP effective participators Edexcel BTEC Level 3 Nationals spec in Hospitality Issue 1 February 2010 Edexcel Limited 2010 3 Essential guidance for tutors Delivery Professionalism in the hospitality industry is vital to both the success of the hospitality business and to learners future careers.Future employers will expect recruits to demonstrate a profe ssional attitude to their work, to themselves, to colleagues and to their employers. Tutors must take great care throughout their work to honor the importance of maintaining the right professional attitude, in terms of personal, social, technical and customer service skills when working with and communicating with some others. It is important that learners are make sensitive of different types of food and drink service operations and the situations and contexts to which they are suited.While or so centres whitethorn prefer to concentrate on traditional restaurant operations, the unit is designed to ensure that learners are prepared for employment in a range of food and drink service operations. It should be noted that this unit includes non-alcoholic beverages, and delivery should include the preparation and service of a range of teas, coffees and other non-alcoholic drinks. Tutors should be aware of developing trends in food and drink products and go in the hospitality industr y, and should ensure that learners understand both the nature of the trends and their come to on hospitality operations.Much of the delivery will be through applicative sessions. These could be back up through work placement prior to assessment to modify learners to develop food and drink service skills. Both functional sessions and work placements should be planned to enable a range of food service situations to be considered and to enable learners to apply their skills to these varied situations. Learners will besides need to consider a variety of customer service situations that may arise through food and drink service. They could practise their skills through case plays of simulated scenarios.Learners should develop criteria to evaluate implementation relating to severally scenario and practise evaluating their aver and others performance. Recording type plays using video and/or audio cassettes would assist selfmilitary rating. This unit could be delivered jointly wit h Unit 7 Alcoholic Beverage function and could too be delivered alongside Unit 5 supervisory Skills in the Hospitality Industry, as it offers the opportunity to organise and supervise a team in the delivery of food and drink service. The application of evaluation techniques and criteria will also make a valuable ontri simplyion to learners future percentage as supervisors in the hospitality industry. 4 Edexcel BTEC Level 3 Nationals stipulation in Hospitality Issue 1 February 2010 Edexcel Limited 2010 Outline learning plan The outline learning plan has been included in this unit as guidance and can be used in confederacy with the programme of suggested assignments. The outline learning plan demonstrates one way in planning the delivery and assessment of this unit. Topic and suggested assignments/activities and/assessmentIntroduction to the unit and the programme of learning. conference discussion about food and drink service operations. Tutor definition of key terms. Visits to hospitality businesses and observation of food and drink service operations follow-up poster showing food and drink service operations within the businesses. Learners interview a member of staff from their own debut on the importance of the meal experience in food and drink service operations. Visits to hospitality businesses to find out about different food and drink service situations.Assignment 1 The Importance of the Meal Experience in Food and Drink Service Operations (P1, M1) Learners produce a foundation about the importance of the meal experience in food and drink service operations based on visit. Group discussion to contain types of operation for different types of hospitality businesses. Videos or role-plays of preparation and layout of a food and drink service operation. Role-play exercises organising the preparation and layout of a food and drink service operation. Assignment 2 Organising the Preparation and Layout of a Food and Drink Service Operation (P2)Ba sed on organising the preparation and layout of a food and drink service operation for real customers. Videos or role plays of providing food and drink service. Learners work alongside staff in their own institution providing food and drink service receive feedback. Role-play exercises providing food and drink service. Assignment 3 Providing Food and Drink Service and Customer Service (P3, P4, M2, D1) Based on providing food and drink service to real customers. Learners investigate review techniques and criteria used in a business.Assignment 4 Review of Food and Drink Service furnish (P5, M3, D2) An investigation of a business or related to a scenario leash to a piece of written work. Tutorial support and feedback. Self-initiated learning time. Edexcel BTEC Level 3 Nationals specification in Hospitality Issue 1 February 2010 Edexcel Limited 2010 5 Assessment Any evidence submitted for criteria requiring the practical demonstration of skills, eg role plays or the ability to work independently, must be supported by observation sheet(s) signed by the assessor identifying how and why specific criteria have been met.The sub-headings in this section mirror the funnelling opportunities in the grading grid. They suggest how assessment can be grouped to allow learners to progress to the higher grades however, they are not prescriptive. P1 M1 To achieve P1, learners must explain the importance of the meal experience, based on their work experience or visits to a variety of businesses. Learners should include a minimum of three different situations in their explanation, covering each of the meal experience criteria.M1 requires learners to analyse in detail at least two different food and drink service operations, focusing on all aspects of the meal experience, operational issues and customer service. P2 For P2, learners need to show they can organise and implement the preparation and layout of the environment before starting the service. enjoin could be gathe red through observation by the tutor of team briefings or a written brief together with evidence of a single practical exercise when the learner has had specific responsibility.P3 P4 M2 D1 To achieve P3, learners need to demonstrate food and drink service skills. This can be prove in the form of video tapes or witness testimonies from assessors and supported by written descriptions of the practical scenario. The evidence could, for the most part, come from the same practical situations as for P2. Although learners must show competent skills, at pass level it is expected that they will require guidance and support. render for P4 could be in the form of video or witness testimonies from assessors.The witness testimonies should separate fitted information to confirm that the requirements of achieving a professional approach to personal, social, technical and customer service skills have been met, as have levels of teamwork and communication. The evidence for M2 must show that le arners are capable of using initiative and show confidence and independence in food and drink service and customer care skills. Evidence should come from real-life food and drink service situations, and could be linked with Unit 26 Industry-related Project in Hospitality.Learners competence in meeting this criterion should be evidenced by an observation sheet with reference made to how and why the learner has achieved M2. To achieve D1, witness testimonies and/or observation sheets should give detailed information to confirm that the learner has demonstrated a high level of personal and technical skills. Examples of effective technical skills at this level could be a learner who is able to anticipate customer needs and can demonstrate customer service to a standard which is over and above that normally expected. 6 Edexcel BTEC Level 3 Nationals specification in Hospitality Issue 1 February 2010 Edexcel Limited 2010 P5 M3 D2 To achieve P5, learners are required to review food an d drink service provision using appropriate evaluation techniques and criteria and should provide evidence which shows understanding of the need to measure the performance of a food service operation. The criteria should be specific and measurable. Examples of appropriate criteria could be all tables are to receive orders within 15 minutes or the menu should reflect good value for money compared to other identical businesses. Learners should also explain the benefits of this approach.This can be done in cosmopolitan terms and need not be linked to a specific food service project, although evidence could be linked with Unit 26 Industry-related Project in Hospitality. Evidence for M3 will build on the criteria place in P5. The criteria used could be predetermined by the assignment brief, but learners should relate the evidence to a specific practical scenario and produce valid recommendations for improvement. Learners should collect data from reliable sources, eg customer comment c ards and feedback from colleagues, rather than basing the whole review on their own opinion.Evidence for D2 could be in the form of a presentation or a written report. Joint evaluation as part of a team would not be acceptable. Learners must set their own criteria for assessing a food and drink service operation and make recommendations for improvement that are justified and prioritised. The action plan should be realistic and achievable in the context of the chosen food and drink operation. Programme of suggested assignments The table below shows a programme of suggested assignments that cover the pass, virtuousness and distinction criteria in the assessment and grading grid.This is for guidance and it is recommended that centres either deliver their own assignments or adapt any Edexcel assignments to meet local needs and resources. Criteria covered Assignment title Scenario P1, M1 The Importance of the Meal Experience in Food and Drink Service Operations Learners take the role of Learners take in a restaurant manager and need to presentation for use with produce a presentation about brand-new staff. the importance of the meal experience in food and drink service operations for use with new staff. P2 Organising the Preparation and Layout of a Food and Drink Service OperationLearners continue in the role Role play or work placement of restaurant manager and supported by observation are required to organise the sheets. preparation and layout of a food and drink service operation. P3, P4, M2, D1 Providing Food and Drink Service and Customer Service Learners continue in the role of restaurant manager and are required to provide food and drink service to real customers. Role play or work placement supported by observation sheets. P5, M3, D2 Review of Food and Drink Service cookery Learners continue in the role of restaurant manager and are asked to review the food and rink service provision. Learners produce material in adapted format questionnaires, check lists. Edexcel BTEC Level 3 Nationals specification in Hospitality Issue 1 February 2010 Edexcel Limited 2010 Assessment method 7 Links to National Occupational Standards, other BTEC units, other BTEC quali? cations and other relevant units and quali? cations This unit forms part of the BTEC Hospitality suite. This unit has particular cogitate with the following unit titles in the Hospitality suite Level 2 Level 3 Service of Food at Table Alcoholic Beverage Service Service of Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic DrinksFood Service Organisation Essential resources It is essential for the delivery of this unit that learners have access to a real or simulated food service environment. Appropriate food and drink service equipment must also be provided, such as cappuccino machines, icemakers, blenders and other specialist equipment including glasses and china. Employer exercise and vocational contexts Visits and work experience with local food and drink service providers would provide learne rs with an insight into food and drink service and help learners develop the skills required in different businesses providing food service.Developing hospitality industry links would enhance the delivery of this unit. Indicative reading for learners Textbooks Ceserani V and Foskett D The possibility of Catering, 11th random variable (Hodder Arnold, 2007) ISBN 9780340939260 Hayter R Food and Drink Service, 2nd Edition (Thomson Learning, 1996) ISBN 9781861526878 Lillicrap D and Cousins J Food and Beverage Service, 7th Edition (Hodder Arnold, 2006) ISBN 9780340905241 journal Caterer and Hotelkeeper Reed Business Information Websites www. bha. org. uk British Hospitality connexion www. caterersearch. com Caterersearch Hospitality news www. catersource. om Catersource Education, products and news for caterers www. cookeryonline. com Cookeryonline Food, cookery and hospitality resources www. fdf. org. uk Food and Drink Federation www. people1st. co. uk People 1st Sector Skills Council for Hospitality, Leisure, Travel and Tourism 8 Edexcel BTEC Level 3 Nationals specification in Hospitality Issue 1 February 2010 Edexcel Limited 2010 Delivery of personal, learning and thinking skills The table below identifies the opportunities for personal, learning and thinking skills (PLTS) that have been included within the pass assessment criteria of this unit.Skill When learners are Independent enquirers P1 explaining the importance of the meal experience in food and drink service situations IE 4 P5 reviewing food and drink service provision IE 6 Self-managers P2 organising the preparation and layout of a food and drink service operation P3 demonstrating competent skills in providing food and drink service with appropriate tutor support P4 showing a professional attitude at all times with relevant personal, social, technical and customer service skills SM 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7Although PLTS are identified within this unit as an inherent part of the assessment criteria, there are further opportunities to develop a range of PLTS through various approaches to teaching and learning. Skill When learners are Reflective learners assessing their food and drink service provision RL 1. Edexcel BTEC Level 3 Nationals specification in Hospitality Issue 1 February 2010 Edexcel Limited 2010 9 Functional Skills Level 2 Skill When learners are ICT Use ICT systems Select, act with and use ICT systems independently for a complex task to meet a ariety of needs Use ICT to effectively plan work and evaluate the effectiveness of the ICT system they have used Manage information storage to enable efficient retrieval Follow and understand the need for safety and credentials practices Troubleshoot ICT Find and subscribe to information Select and use a variety of sources of information independently for a complex task Access, search for, select and use ICTbased information and evaluate its fitness for purpose ICT Develop, present and excrete information Enter, develop and format information independently to suit its significance and urpose including ? text and tables ? images ? numbers ? records Bring together information to suit capability and purpose Present information in ways that are fit for purpose and audience Evaluate the selection and use of ICT tools and facilities used to present information Select and use ICT to communicate and exchange information safely, responsibly and effectively including storage of messages and contact lists 10 Edexcel BTEC Level 3 Nationals specification in Hospitality Issue 1 February 2010 Edexcel Limited 2010 Skill When learners are MathematicsUnderstand routine and non-routine problems in a wide range of familiar and unacquainted with(predicate) contexts and situations Identify the situation or problem and the mathematical methods needed to set about it Select and apply a range of skills to find solutions Use appropriate checking procedures and evaluate their effectiveness at each stage organ ising a food and drink service operation Interpret and communicate solutions to practical problems in familiar and unfamiliar routine contexts and situations Draw conclusions and provide mathematical justifications incline Speaking and listening make a range of ontributions to discussions and make effective presentations in a wide range of contexts discussing the importance of the meal experience presenting an evaluation of a food and drink operation and action plan. recital compare, select, read and understand texts and use them to gather information, ideas, arguments and opinions Writing write documents, including lengthened writing pieces, communicating information, ideas and opinions, effectively and persuasively Edexcel BTEC Level 3 Nationals specification in Hospitality Issue 1 February 2010 Edexcel Limited 2010 11

O Father, Where Art Thou Essay

The article, O Father, Where Art Thou? which was scripted by Joshua Alston and published in Newsweek last May, basic ally explained that the notion that close relentless fathers are irresponsible lifts is not entirely true. According to the author, fleck statistics show that there is an alarming rate of black children living in homes without a father50 percent, it doesnt necessarily mean that all black fathers are the same. In fact, Alston wrote that there are a occur of black fathers who are responsible parents and who have been supportive and caring for their children horizontal in the most unstable and volatile situations.This, according to the author, is greatly illustrated in Tal-Nehsi Coates memoir, A Beautiful Struggle, in which he depicted how his black father, Paul, was a source of stability in security in a confederacy where violence is rampant. Moreover, Alston claimed that the image of black fathers were significantly tainted by songs and shows much(prenominal) a s Papa Was A Rolling Stone and The Maury Show, which both portrayed, in a way, that black men are bad fathers and, as a result, gave rise to the negative views towards them.On the other hand, the problem with most black fathers, according to the author, is that they think they equate being a successful parent to making a lot of money or being a breadwinner. Therefore, if black fathers arent able to substantially provide for their families, they opt to present home sort of of having their pride hurt. Based on the article, this is what people deal Coates are trying to change. According to him, black fathers shouldnt be make to feel like failures just because they arent living to the role of breadwinner.Coates too claimed that being a father also entails love, leadership, and teaching his children values and lessons in life. In his memoir, Coates wrote that he was raised well by his father, which also enabled him to bob up his critical thinking. In short, according to the author, in order to reduce the occur of black fathers who are absent in their homes, people should view them in a different light and look at the other aspects of their lives instead of just focusing on their inability to provide for their families.

Saturday, February 23, 2019

Nursing Pressure Sore

What ar nip bleaks? Pres legitimate affectionates ar argonas of injured jumble and wander. They ar ordinarily eventd by sitting or deceit in superstar note for too long. This puts wedge on certain demesnes of the body. The stuff nooky reduce the rip render to the p ar down and the tissues beneath the come up. When a turn in position doesnt occur often enough and the blood supply bring ons too low, a crazy whitethorn form. wedge in the buffs are in like manner called strike out warms, blackjack ulcers and decubitus ulcers. What are the symptoms of a push sensation abominable? There are 4 stages of extort sores. Symptoms at each stage overwhelm the pursuance Stage 1.The affected fur looks red and whitethorn feel immediate to the touch. The area whitethorn similarly burn, hurt or itch. In populate who work dark flake off, the pressure sore may get to a blue or purple tint. Stage 2. The affected fell is to a greater extent(prenominal) dis tressd in a stage 2 pressure sore, which suffer go in an open sore that looks like an abrasion or a blister. The skin around the wound may discolored. The area is in truth wo(e)ful. Stage 3. These personas of pressure sores usually have a crater-like appearance collectable to increased cost to the tissue below the skins rise up. This lists the wound deeper. Stage 4.This is nearly serious type of pressure sore. The skin and tissue is ascetically damaged, make a large wound. Infection squeeze out occur at this stage. Muscles, drops, tendons and joints hindquarters be affected by stage 4 pressure sores. Who gets pressure sores? Anyone who sits or lies in one position for a long snip might get pressure sores. You are much likely to get pressure sores if you are paralyzed, use a w list tame or spend virtually of your time in rump. However, even masses who are able to head gouge forge pressure sores when they must(prenominal) delay in cut because of an ailingn ess or an injury.Some chronic diseases, such as diabetes and hardening of the arteries, make it hard for pressure sores to recruit because of poor blood circulation. Peripheral vascular disease,MI, Stroke,Multiple trauma,Musculoskeletal dis avers/fractures/contractures,Gibleed , Spinal cord injury (e. g. , decreased sensory perception, muscle spasms),Neurological throw out of kilters (e. g. , Guillain-Barre, two-fold sclerosis),Unstable and/or chronic medical conditions (e. g. , diabetes, renal disease, undersurfacecer, chronic obstructive pneumonic disease, congestive heart failure),History of previous ressure ulcer,Pre call neonates, Dementia, Recent surgical persevering. Where on the body house you get pressure sores? Pressure sores usually develop eachwhere skeletal go a ways of the body that dont have much full-bodied to fancify them. Pressure sores are most common on the heels and on the hips. otherwise areas at risk for pressure sores include the base of the spi ne (tail operating system), the move up blades, the backs and sides of the knees, and the back of the head. How are pressure sores treated? There are several(prenominal) things you contribute do to inspection and rep ambiance pressure sores furbish up * Relieving the pressure that caused the sore * Treating the sore itself Improving upkeep and other conditions to help the sore improve What stop be make to reduce pressure on the sore? Dont lie on pressure sores. mathematical function foam pads or pillows to bugger transfer pressure off the sore. Special mattresses, mattress covers, foam wedges or seat cushions can help backup you in merchant ship or in a result to reduce or relieve pressure. Try to avoid resting today on your hip deck out when youre lying on your side. accustom pillows under one side so that your burden rests on the fleshy part of your buttock instead of on your hip bone. Also, use pillows to keep your knees and ankles apart.When lying on your bac k, place a pillow under your lower calves to lift your ankles s firingly off the bed. When lying in bed, win over your position at least all 2 hours. When sitting in a chair or wheelchair, sit upright and straight. An upright, straight position will allow in you to move more easily and help prevent new sores. You should change positions all 15 legal proceeding when sitting in a chair or wheelchair. If you can non move by yourself, have your give caregiver help you defect your position. How should the pressure sore be unbroken livid? In order to cure, pressure sores must be kept mediocre and free of knackered tissue.Stage 1 sores can be looseed with mild soap and water. You can clean stage 3 sores by rinse the area with a coarseness and water solution. The saltwater removes extra fluid and loose material. Your restitute or nurse can show you how to clean your pressure sore. Pressure sores should be kept covered with a bandage or dressing. Sometimes gauze bandage is used. The gauze is kept moist and must be changed at least once a day. Newer kinds of dressings include a see-through film and a hydrocolloid dressing. A hydrocolloid dressing is a bandage made of a gel that molds to the pressure sore and helps promote heal and skin growth.These dressings can stay on for several days at a time. Dead tissue (which may look like a scab) in the sore can interfere with healing and lead to transmittance. There are many ways to remove late(prenominal) tissue from the pressure sore. Rinsing the sore every time you change the bandage is helpful. Special dressings that help your body fade out the knackered tissue can also be used. They are leave in place for several days. Another way to remove dead tissue is to put wet gauze bandages on the sore and allow them to dry. The dead tissue sticks to the gauze and is removed when the gauze is pulled off.For more severe pressure sores, dead tissue must be removed surgically. Removing dead tissue and cleaning the sore can hurt. Your doctor can apprise a pain reliever for you to take 30 to 60 minutes before your dressing is changed to help reduce pain. Why is good edible important for healing sores? Good nutrition is important because it helps your body heal the sore. If you dont get enough calories, protein and other nutrients (especially vitamin C and zinc, which can help heal wounds like pressure sores), your body wont be able to heal, no matter how well you care for the pressure sore.Your doctor, nurse or a dietician can give you advice about a good for you(p) diet. Be sure to tell your doctor if you have lost or gained weight recently. What if the sore gets septic? Pressure sores that pass infected heal more belatedly and can propagate a dangerous infection to the rest of your body. If you happen upon any of the signs of infection listed below, call your doctor right away. Signs of an infected pressure sore include the by-line * Thick yellow or kilobyte pus * A bad smell from the sore * Redness or warmth around the sore * Swelling around the sore * kernel around the soreSigns that the infection may have spread include the following * Fever * Chills * Mental confusion or demandingy concentrating * Rapid jiffy * Weakness How are infected pressure sores treated? The preaching of an infected pressure sore depends on how bad the infection is. If only the sore itself is infected, an antibiotic ointment can be put on the sore. When bone or deeper tissue is infected, antibiotics are often required. They can be give intravenously (through a needle put in a vein) or orally (by mouth). How can I tell if the sore is getting expose? As a pressure sore heals, it slowly gets smaller.Less fluid drains from it. New, legal tissue starts growing at the bottom of the sore. This new tissue is light red or pink and looks lumpy and shiny. It may take 2 to 4 weeks of treatment before you see these signs of healing. How can pressure sores be prevented? The most impo rtant step to prevent pressure sores is to avoid extended pressure on one part of your body, especially the pressure points mentioned previously. Its also important to keep your skin healthy. Keep your skin clean and dry. Use a mild soap and warm (not hot) water. Apply moisturizers so your skin doesnt get too dry.If you must spend a lot of time in bed or in a wheelchair, check your integral body every day for spots, color changes or other signs of sores. manufacture special attention to the pressure points where sores are most likely to occur. If you smoke, you should quit. pile who smoke are more likely to develop pressure sores. manage can help improve blood flow, strengthen your muscles and improve your overall health. Talk to your doctor if sensual activity is hard for you. He or she can suggest exercises that can work for you, or refer you to somatic therapist that can help. Pressure Sore PreventionRelieving pressure Position must be changed on a regular basis, at least every two hours, and in the very frail at least every hour. Good Diet A good and balanced diet contributes to healing, as well as avoiding severe nutritional and weight loss strip down Care Keep the skin clean. moisture should be minimized. Skin care products should be used that moisturize the skin but do not make it wet or soggy. Use continence support if a mortal is unable to control their bladder or bowels. Pads, diapers, convenes or catheterizing. call in the skin to see if any redness or breaks in the skin are developing.Use products to relieve and treat pressure sores airbeds, foam bed, bed and chair harborors, chair products, continence aids can all contribute to avoiding of bed sores. Clean skin with warm water and minimal skirmish. Apply lotion often. - Avoid direct pressure to senseless areas such as ankles and hips. Use pillows and padded protectors to support arms, legs and vulnerable areas. Change the position of a bed-bound psyche every two hours. Handle and move carefully to avoid skin tears and scrapes.Change the position of a chair-bound person hourly. Discourage the bed-bound or chair-bound person from sitting with the head elevated more than 30 degrees, except for nobble periods of time. Check and change bed linens as often as inevitable Use continence management products if necessary to reduce exposure to moisture. aggrandize supports, such as doughnut cushions may, themselves, become a source of pressure. Do not massage bony areas of the body. Do not massage pressure sores. Do not use remedies such as iodine, peroxide and cornstarch that may further irritate the skin.Pressure sores (bedsores, decubitus ulcers, pressure ulcers) are areas of skin damage resulting from a lack of blood flow due to pressure. Sores often result from pressure but may also result from pulling on the skin or attrition, particularly over bony areas. The diagnosis is usually based on a physical examination. discussion includes cleansing, removal of pressure from the affected area, special dressings, and, some(a)times, surgery. Pressure sores can occur in hoi polloi of any age who are bedbound, chairbound, or unable to reposition themselves. They are more common among older citizenry.They tend to occur over bony projections where pressure on skin can be concentrated, such as over the hip get up, tailbone, heels, ankles, and elbows. They occur where there is pressure on the skin from a bed, wheelchair, cast, splint, or other hard object . Pressure sores draw out the time spent in hospitals or nursing homes and increase the court of care. Pressure sores can be flavour threatening if they are untreated or if underlying health conditions prevent them from healing. Causes Causes that contribute to the development of pressure sores include Pressure Traction crash Moisture short nutrition Pressure on skin, especially when over bony areas, reduces or cuts off blood flow to the skin. If blood flow is cut off for more than 1 or 2 hours, the skin dies, beginning with its outer(prenominal) socio-economic class (epidermis). The dead skin breaks down and forms an open sore (ulcer). Most concourse do not develop pressure sores because they constantly shift position without thinking, even when they are asleep. However, some mass cannot move radiation diagramly and are therefore at greater risk of developing pressure sores.They include the great unwashed who are paralyzed, comatose, very weak, sedated, or restrained. Paralyzed and comatose slew are at particular risk because they also may be unable to move or feel pain (pain normally motivates people to move or to postulate to be moved). Traction also reduces blood flow to the skin. Traction occurs when the skin is stretched by being wedged against something or when it sticks to something, often bed linens. When the skin is stretched, the effect is much like pressure. Friction can lead to or worsen pressure sores. Repeated friction may wear away the top layers of skin.Such skin friction may occur if people are pulled repeatedly across a bed. Moisture can increase skin friction and weaken or damage the protective outer layer of skin if the skin is exposed to it a long time. For example, the skin may be in prolonged fulfil with perspiration, urine, or feces. Inadequate nutrition increases the risk of developing pressure sores and slows the healing process of sores that do develop. Malnourished people may not have enough body fat to pad the skin and bones or to keep the blood vessels from being squeezed shut.Also, skin repair is impaired in people whose diets are deficient in protein, vitamin C, or zinc. Did You Know? Inadequate nutrition increases the chances of developing pressure sores and slows the healing of sores that do develop. Repositioning people who cannot move themselves at least every 1 to 2 hours can help prevent pressure sores. Symptoms For most people, pressure sores cause some pain and itching. However, in people whose senses are dulled, even severe sores may be painless. Pressure sores are categorized into four stages according to the cogency of damage Stage I Redness and inflammation Stage II Some shallow skin loss, including abrasions, blisters or both Stage terce Full-thickness skin loss down to the layer of fat. Stage IV Full-thickness skin loss with exposure of underlying muscle, tendon, or bone Pressure sores do not always progress from mild to severe stages. Sometimes the get-go noticeable sign is a late-stage sore. If pressure sores become infected, they may have an unpleasant odor. Pus may be visible in or around the sore. The area around the pressure sore may become red or feel warm, and pain may worsen if the infection spreads to the surrounding skin (causing cellulitis).Infection delays healing of shallow sores and can be life threatening in deeper sores. Infection can even penetrate the bone (osteomyelitis), requiring weeks of treatment with antibiotics. In the most sever e cases, infection can spread into the bloodstream (sepsis), causing fever or shaking chills. Spotlight on Aging Aging itself does not cause pressure sores. But it causes changes in tissues that make pressure sores more likely to develop. As people age, the outer layers of the skin thin. Many older people have less fat and muscle, which helps absorb pressure.The number of blood vessels decreases and blood vessels rupture more easily. altogether wounds, including pressure sores, heal more slowly. Certain conditions make pressure sores more likely to develop Being unable to move normally because of a disorder such as stroke Having to stay in bed for a long time, for example, because of surgery Being unembellishedively sleepy (such people are less likely to change position or ask someone to reposition them) Losing sensation because of nerve damage (such people do not feel vexation or pain, which would prompt them to change ositions) enough less responsive to what is happening in and around them, including their own discomfort or pain, because of a disorder such as dementia diagnosing Doctors can usually diagnose pressure sores by doing a physical examination. A doctor or nurse usually measures the size and prudence of a sore to determine its stage and plan treatment. If the damage is severe, radionuclide bone scanning or gadolinium-enhanced MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) may be done to check whether infection has spread from the sore to bonea disorder called osteomyelitis.To diagnose osteomyelitis, doctors may need to take a small model (biopsy) of bone to see if bacteria grow from it (culture). Prevention Prevention is the high hat strategy for dealing with pressure sores. In most cases, pressure sores can be prevented by meticulous attention from all caregivers, including nurses, nurses aides, and family members. Close workaday inspection of a bedridden or chairbound persons skin can sight early redness or discoloration. Any sign of redness or d iscoloration at pressure areas is a signal that the person ineluctably to be repositioned and kept from lying or sitting on the discolored area until it returns to normal.Because shifting position is necessary to keep the blood flowing to the skin, oversedation should be avoided and activity encouraged. People who cannot move themselves should be repositioned every 2 hours if they are in bed and every hour if they are in a chairmore often if possible. The skin must be kept clean and dry because moisture increases the risk of developing pressure sores. teetotal skin is less likely to stick to fabrics and cause friction or traction. For people confined to bed, sheets should be changed frequently to make sure they are clean and dry.Applying noncaking body powder to skin in areas where two part of the body press against each other (such as the buttocks and groin) can help keep the skin in these areas dry. Bony projections (such as heels and elbows) can be protected with soft material s, such as foam wedges and heel protectors. Donut-shaped devices and sheepskins should be avoided as they only shift pressure or friction from one vulnerable site to another. Special beds, mattresses, and seat cushions can be used to reduce pressure in people who are wheelchair-bound or bedridden.These products can reduce pressure and offer extra relief. A doctor or nurse can recommend the most appropriate mattress surface or seat cushion. It is important to remember that none of these devices eliminate pressure completely or are a substitute for frequent repositioning. Treatment Treating a pressure sore is much more difficult than preventing one. The important goals of treatment are to relieve pressure on the sores, keep them clean and free of infection, and provide adequate nutrition. Adequate nutrition is important in helping pressure sores heal and in preventing new sores from forming.A well-balanced, high-protein diet is recommended as well as a daily high-potency vitamin and mineral supplement. Supplemental vitamin C and zinc may help with healing as well. Electrical stimulation, warmth therapy, massage therapy, and hyperbaric O2 therapy have not proven helpful. In the earliest stage, pressure sores usually heal by themselves once pressure is removed. When the skin is broken, a doctor or nurse considers the location and condition of the pressure sore when recommending a dressing. Film (see-through) dressings help protect early-stage pressure sores and allow them to heal more quickly.Hydrocolloid (oxygen- and moisture-retaining) patches protect, keep the skin appropriately moist, and provide a healthy environment for deep sores. Other types of dressings may be used for deeper sores, those that oozing a lot of fluids, and those that are infected. If the sore appears infected or oozes, rinsing with saline and dabbing gently with a gauze pad are helpful. A doctor may need to remove (debride) dead tissue with a scalpel or a chemical solution. Removal of de ad tissue is usually painless, because pain is not felt in dead tissue. Some pain may be felt because healthy tissue is nearby.Health care practitioners may flood (irrigate) the sore, particularly its deep crevices, with a sterile solution to help clean away hidden debris. Sometimes a bed that circulates air (an air-fluidized bed) is used in hospitals and nursing homes. This special bed helps reduce or redistribute pressure on the body. - Deep pressure sores are difficult to treat. Sometimes they require skin and muscle flaps, in which healthy, thicker tissue with a good blood supply is surgically repositioned to cover the damaged area.This type of surgery is not always successful, however, especially for frail older people who are malnourished. Often, when infections develop deep within a sore, antibiotics are given. When bones beneath a sore become infected, the bone infection (osteomyelitis) is super difficult to cure and may spread through the bloodstream, requiring many weeks of treatment with an antibiotic (see Bone and Joint Infections Osteomyelitis). - The terms decubitus ulcer and pressure sore often are used interchangeably in the medical community.Decubitus, from the Latin decumbere, means to lie down. Decubitus ulcer, therefore, does not adequately describe ulceration that occurs in other positions, such as prolonged sitting (eg, the commonly encountered ischial eminence ulcer). Because the common denominator of all such ulcerations is pressure, pressure sore is the better term to describe this condition. Pressure is exerted on the skin, soft tissue, muscle, and bone by the weight of an individual against a surface beneath.These pressures are often in excess of capillary filling pressure, approximately 32 mm Hg. In patients with normal sensitivity, mobility, and mental faculty, pressure sores do not occur. Feedback, conscious and unconscious, from the areas of muscle contraction leads inIndividuals who are unable to avoid long periods of perpe tual pressure over bony prominencesa group of patients that typically includes elderly individuals, persons who are neurologically impaired, and patients who are sharp hospitalizedare at increased risk for the development of necrosis and ulceration.These individuals cannot protect themselves from the pressure exerted on their body unless they consciously change position or have assistance in doing so. Even the most conscientious patient with an extensive support group and unlimited financial resources may develop ulceration resulting from a brief lapse in avoidance of the ill effects of pressure. 2, 3 dividuals to change body position. These changes shift the pressure prior to any irreversible tissue damage. The inciting event for a pressure sore is compression of the tissues by an external force, such as a mattress, wheelchair pad, or bed rail.Other traumatic forces that may be present include shear forces and friction. These forces cause microcirculatory occlusion as pressures ris e above capillary filling pressure, resulting in ischemia. Ischemia leads to inflammation and tissue anoxia. Tissue anoxia leads to cell death, necrosis, and ulceration. - Irreversible changes may occur after as little as 2 hours of uninterrupted preSpecialized support surfaces are available for bedding and wheelchairs, which can maintain tissues at pressures below 30 mm Hgssure. urning and repositioning the patient remain the cornerstones of prevention and treatment. The wound and surrounding skin must be kept clean and free A new international guideline with regard to the prevention of pressure ulcers was released in 2009. 11 A collaboration between the National Pressure Ulcer consultive Panel and the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, the guideline covers the latest evidence-based recommendations for all patients in all healthcare settings.Clinical dedicate recommendations in regard to prevention will include * Current definitions and salmagundi of pressure ulcers * Ris k assessment, including the role of nutrition * Skin inspection and skin care * Positioning and repositioning patients * Evidence for use of various support surfaces (air-fluidized beds alternating air mattresses and cushions foam-, gel-, or fluid-filled mattresses overlays for operating tables turning beds and other aids for pressure redistribution) * Protective devices used for pressure ulcer prevention and * facts of life and training for healthcare providers.